Is your child having a problem with speech or language skills? And if so, what should you do?
In a recent interaction, maybe you or your visitor expressed concern that your child could be having a problem with certain speech or language skills. As a parent or care giver, you might have identified your child to have delays and difficulties in speech and language development while talking to your child or you noticed an occasional stutter. It’s wise for you to intervene quickly.
An evaluation by a certified speech-language therapist can help to find out if your child is having problems. Speech-language therapy is the treatment for most kids and patients with speech and/or language disorders.
SPEECH AND LANGUAGE THERAPY SERVICES
UMRC offers the speech and language therapy services to children / people with special needs. At our center, we treat kids / children / People who have been diagnosed with:
- Cerebral Palsy
- Cranial Nerve Damage
- Cognitive Delays
- Speech Delays
- Swallowing Difficulties
- Developmental Disabilities
- Hearing Impairments
- Language Delays
- Speech Disorders
- Difficulty in Pronunciation and Articulation of words.
- Involuntary Stammering
SPEECH DISORDERS, LANGUAGE DISORDERS, AND FEEDING DISORDERS
A speech disorder refers to a problem with the actual production of sounds. A language disorder refers to a problem understanding or putting words together to communicate ideas.
Speech disorders include:
- Articulation disorders: difficulties producing sounds in syllables or saying words incorrectly to the point that listeners can’t understand what’s being said.
- Fluency disorders: problems such as stuttering, in which the flow of speech is interrupted by abnormal stoppages, partial-word repetitions (“b-b-boy”), or prolonging sounds and syllables (sssssnake).
- Resonance or voice disorders: problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that distract listeners from what’s being said. These types of disorders may also cause pain or discomfort for a child when speaking.
Language disorders can either be receptive or expressive:
- Receptive disorders: difficulties understanding or processing language.
- Expressive disorders: difficulties putting words together, limited vocabulary, or inability to use language in a socially appropriate way.
- Cognitive-communication disorders: difficulties with communication skills that involve memory, attention, perception, organization, regulation, and problem solving.
Dysphagia/oral feeding disorders are disorders in the way someone eats or drinks, including problems with chewing, swallowing, coughing, gagging, and refusing foods.
Specialists in Speech-Language Therapy
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often informally known as speech therapists, are professionals educated in the study of human communication, its development, and its disorders. They hold a diploma, degree, a master’s degree in the field.
SLPs assess speech, language, cognitive-communication and oral/feeding/swallowing skills to identify types of communication problems (articulation; fluency; voice; receptive and expressive language disorders, etc.) and the best way to treat them.
In speech-language therapy, a SLP will work with a child one-on-one, in a small group, or directly in a classroom to overcome difficulties involved with a specific disorder.
Therapists use a variety of strategies, including:
- Language intervention activities: The SLP will interact with a child by playing and talking, using pictures, books, objects, or ongoing events to stimulate language development. The therapist may also model correct vocabulary and grammar and use repetition exercises to build language skills.
- Articulation therapy: Articulation, or sound production, exercises involve having the therapist model correct sounds and syllables in words and sentences for a child, often during play activities. The level of play is age-appropriate and related to the child’s specific needs. The SLP will physically show the child how to make certain sounds, such as the “r” sound, and may demonstrate how to move the tongue to produce specific sounds.
- Oral-motor/feeding and swallowing therapy: The SLP may use a variety of oral exercises — including facial massage and various tongue, lip, and jaw exercises — to strengthen the muscles of the mouth for eating, drinking, and swallowing. The SLP may also introduce different food textures and temperatures to increase a child’s oral awareness during eating and swallowing.
WHEN IS THERAPY NEEDED?
Kids may need speech-language therapy for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to:
- hearing impairments
- cognitive (intellectual, thinking) or other developmental delays
- weak oral muscles
- chronic hoarseness
- birth defects such as cleft lip or cleft palate
- motor planning problems
- articulation problems
- fluency disorders
- respiratory problems (breathing disorders)
- feeding and swallowing disorders
- traumatic brain injury
Therapy should begin as soon as possible. Children enrolled in therapy early (before they’re 5 years old) tend to have better outcomes than those who begin therapy later.
This does not mean that older kids can’t make progress in therapy; they may progress at a slower rate because they often have learned patterns that need to be changed.
HELPING YOUR CHILD
Speech-language experts agree that parental involvement is crucial to the success of a child’s progress in speech or language therapy.Parents are an extremely important part of their child’s therapy program and help determine whether it is a success. Kids who complete the program quickest and with the longest-lasting results are those whose parents have been involved.
Ask the therapist for suggestions on how you can help your child. For instance, it’s important to help your child do the at-home stimulation activities that the SLP suggests to ensure continued progress and carry-over of newly learned skills.The process of overcoming a speech or language disorder can take some time and effort, so it’s important that all family members be patient and understanding with the child.
As a parent, care giver or child’s teacher, if your child has difficulties with language or speech, you can contact us for appropriate advice.